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Systematic review and meta-analysis: the efficiency of bacteriophages previously patented against pathogenic bacteria on food

Abstract

Food-borne diseases are a global public health issue with 1 in 10 people falling ill after eating contaminated food every year. In response, the food industry has implemented several new pathogen control strategies, such as biotechnological tools using the direct application of bacteriophages for biological control. We have undertaken a systematic review and meta-analysis that evaluated the efficiency of patented phages as a biological control for food-borne pathogens and determined the physical-chemical characteristics of the antimicrobial effect. Included and excluded criteria was developed. Included criteria: Phage patent files with an application in biological control on food and scientific articles and book chapters that used phages patented for food biological control. Excluded criteria: Patent documents, scientific articles, and book chapters that included phage therapy in humans, animals, and biological control on plants but did not have an application on food were not considered in our study. The systematic analysis identified 77 documents, 46 scientific articles, and 31 documents of patents and 23 articles was included in the meta-analysis. Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella sp. comprised most of the targets identified in the screening, so that we focused on these strains to do the meta-analysis. There are a total of 383 and 192 experiments for Listeria and Salmonella phages for quantitative data analysis.Indexing databases for the bibliographic search (Scopus, Web of Science (WoS) and PubMed (Medline) were addressed by an automated script written in Python 3 Python Core Team (2015) and deposited on GitHub (https://github.com/glenjasper).A random-effects meta-analysis revealed (i) significant antimicrobial effect of Listeria phages in apple, apple juice, pear, and pear juice, (ii) significant antimicrobial effect of Salmonella phages in eggs, apple, and ready-to-eat chicken, (iii) no heterogeneity was identified in either meta-analysis, (iv) publication bias was detected for Listeria phages but not for Salmonella phages. (v) ListShield and Felix01 phages showed the best result for Listeria and Salmonella biological control, respectively, (vi) concentration of phage and bacteria, time and food had significant effect in the biological control of Listeria, (vii) temperature and time had a significant effect on the antimicrobial activity of Salmonella phages. The systematic review and meta-analyses to determine the efficiency of bacteriophages previously patented against pathogenic bacteria on dairy products, meat, fruits and vegetables. Besides, the discovering of key factors for efficacy, so that future applications of phage biotechnology in foods can be optimally deployed.

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