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Isolation and characterization of Clostridium difficile from a small survey of wastewater, food and animals in New Zealand.


The objective of this study was to undertake a microbiological survey of foods, animal faeces and wastewater samples for Clostridium difficile, and determine the genotypes and antimicrobial susceptibilities of isolates. A total of 211 samples were tested for C. difficile using culture methods. Thirteen toxigenic C. difficile isolates were obtained; ten from wastewater samples, one each from pig and duck faeces and another from a raw meat product. Eight PCR‐ribotypes (RTs) were identified, including two novel RTs (878 and 879). Single‐nucleotide polymorphism analysis using WGS data for all isolates provided greater discrimination between C. difficile isolates within the same RT and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) profiles. All C. difficile isolates were found to be susceptible to the first‐line human antimicrobials used to treat C. difficile infection.

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