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Influenza-Associated Outcomes Among Pregnant, Postpartum, and Nonpregnant Women of Reproductive Age.


During 2012–2015, 46 of 260 (17.7%) influenza-confirmed hospitalizations for acute respiratory infection and 13 of 294 (4.4%) influenza-confirmed outpatient visits were among pregnant and postpartum women. Pregnant and postpartum women experienced higher rates of influenza-associated hospitalization than nonpregnant women overall (rate ratio [RR], 3.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.5–4.7) and by trimester (first, 2.5 [95% CI, 1.2–5.4]; second, 3.9 [95% CI, 2.4–6.3]; and third, 4.8 [95% CI, 3.0–7.7]); the RR for the postpartum period was 0.7 (95% CI, 3.0–7.7). Influenza A viruses were associated with an increased risk (RR for 2009 pandemic influenza A[H1N1] virus, 5.3 [95% CI, 3.2–8.7]; RR for influenza A(H3N2) virus, 3.0 [95% CI, 1.8–5.0]), but influenza B virus was not (RR, 1.8; 95% CI, .7–4.6). Influenza-associated hospitalization rates in pregnancy were significantly higher for Māori women (RR, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.3–8.4), compared with women of European or other ethnicity. Similar risks for influenza-confirmed outpatient visits were not observed.

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