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Identification of entervirus C105 for the first time in New Zealand.

Abstract

We report on the first identification of Enterovirus C105 (EV-C105) in New Zealand from a 52-year-old male hospitalized with mild respiratory tract symptoms. Enterovirus genotyping was performed by partial sequencing of the VP1 region of the enterovirus genome. This highlights the importance of enterovirus surveillance for detection of the importation of new genotypes such as EV-C105, thus allowing a better understanding of the roles they play in disease. The New Zealand National Poliovirus and Enterovirus Identification Reference Laboratory at the Institute of Environmental Science and Research (ESR) Limited, National Centre for Biosecurity and Infectious Disease routinely receives untyped enterovirus clinical specimens or cell culture isolates from four major hospitals (based in Auckland, Waikato, Wellington and Christchurch) as part of the New Zealand enterovirus surveillance network. This surveillance network started in the 1980s and on average receives 150 specimens per year. The aims of this network are (1) to identify the circulation patterns of enterovirus genotypes and predominant strains; (2) to describe clinical diseases associated with circulating genotypes; (3) to detect enterovirus outbreaks to assist with public health intervention; and finally (4) to supplement the national poliovirus surveillance programme. The four laboratories in conjunction with ESR service the entire population of New Zealand. Enterovirus surveillance operates year-round and is based on reports from routine diagnostic services for patients. Each week, all enterovirus identification results are reported to ESR and then collated and published nationally.1 In addition, untyped enteroviruses are referred to ESR for further identification. Enterovirus C105 (EV-C105) is a member of the human enterovirus group C species and was first identified in the Democratic Republic of Congo in late 2010 in a faecal sample collected from a fatal acute flaccid paralysis patient during a poliomyelitis outbreak.2 Due to a lack of sequence data this virus was initially identified as Enterovirus 109 (EV-109).3 In 2012, the virus was assigned as EV-C105 because subsequent sequencing showed that it had only 74.7% nucleotide and 82.5% amino acid identity to EV-109, thus satisfying the criteria for assignment of a new enterovirus serotype.4 Since then, EV-C105 has also been identified in a patient in Peru and in another patient in Cyprus, both with respiratory disease.5,6 This suggests a global distribution although the overall incidence appears to be very low. A greater awareness of EV-C105 may help to detect this virus with increased frequency and to find out more about the pathogenic role and disease association of this particular genotype. Here we report on the identification of EV-C105 for the first time in New Zealand from a patient with mild lower respiratory tract symptoms during an admission to a hospital in Auckland through the national enterovirus surveillance system.

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