Genomic Analysis of Fluoroquinolone- and Tetracycline-Resistant Campylobacter jejuni Sequence Type 6964 in Humans and Poultry, New Zealand, 2014-2016.
In 2014, antimicrobial drug–resistant Campylobacter jejuni sequence type 6964 emerged contemporaneously in poultry from 3 supply companies in the North Island of New Zealand and as a major cause of campylobacteriosis in humans in New Zealand. This lineage, not previously identified in New Zealand, was resistant to tetracycline and fluoroquinolones. Genomic analysis revealed divergence into 2 major clades; both clades were associated with human infection, 1 with poultry companies A and B and the other with company C. Accessory genome evolution was associated with a plasmid, phage insertions, and natural transformation. We hypothesize that the tetO gene and a phage were inserted into the chromosome after conjugation, leaving a remnant plasmid that was lost from isolates from company C. The emergence and rapid spread of a resistant clone of C. jejuni in New Zealand, coupled with evolutionary change in the accessory genome, demonstrate the need for ongoing Campylobacter surveillance among poultry and humans.view journal