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Four-dimensional flow cardiovascular magnetic resonance in tetralogy of Fallot: a systematic review

Abstract

Patients with repaired Tetralogy of Fallot (rTOF) often develop cardiovascular dysfunction and require regular imaging to evaluate deterioration and time interventions such as pulmonary valve replacement. Four-dimensional flow cardiovascular magnetic resonance (4D flow CMR) enables detailed assessment of flow characteristics in all chambers and great vessels. We performed a systematic review of intra-cardiac 4D flow applications in rTOF patients, to examine clinical utility and highlight optimal methods for evaluating rTOF patients.

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