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Fate of bacterial community, antibiotic resistance genes and gentamicin residues in soil after three-year amendment using gentamicin fermentation waste.


Over a three-year field trial, the impacts of composted and raw gentamicin fermentation waste (GFW) application to land on residual soil gentamicin levels, physicochemical properties, bacterial community composition, and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) were assessed. In the saline-alkali soil tested, GFW application decreased electrical conductivity (EC) and pH. Importantly, there was no measurable long-term accumulation of gentamicin as a result of GFW addition. Changes in the abundance of Bacillus was primarily associated with degradation of gentamicin in soil, whereas wider (i.e. more general) shifts in bacterial communities over the treatments was linked to alteration of soil physicochemical properties, particularly pH, total nitrogen, dissolved organic carbon, EC, NO3−-N and NH4+-N. Compared with other treatments, soils receiving composted GFW harbored more types of ARGs and significantly higher (P < 0.05) abundances of mobile genes elements (MGEs) (especially IncQ and Int1) and aminoglycoside ARGs (especially aminoglycoside phosphotransferases genes, APH). Finally, the abundances of ARGs in soils receiving raw and composted GFW were 59.60% and 50.26% higher than that in soils only receiving chemical fertilizer, respectively. Specifically, the abundances of APH, especially strB, were significantly higher than other kinds of ARGs (P < 0.05). The results of linear regression and partial least squares path model showed that MGEs, including plasmids, integrons, and transposons, along with soil properties (EC and NH4+-N) were the main factors associated with change in ARGs. Furthermore, different MGEs were involved in different transfer mechanisms of specific ARGs. Our findings demonstrated the potential risks of using raw and composted GFW as fertilizer, and suggest potential solutions to this problem.

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