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Current and Emerging Technologies for the Detection of Norovirus from Shellfish. Foods, 8(6

Abstract

Reports of norovirus infections associated with the consumption of contaminated bivalve molluscan shellfish negatively impact both consumers and commercial shellfish operators. Current virus recovery and PCR detection methods can be expensive and time consuming. Due to the lack of rapid, user-friendly and onsite/infield methods, it has been difficult to establish an effective virus monitoring regime that is able to identify contamination points across the production line (i.e., farm-to-plate) to ensure shellfish quality. The focus of this review is to evaluate current norovirus detection methods and discuss emerging approaches. Recent advances in omics-based detection approaches have the potential to identify novel biomarkers that can be incorporated into rapid detection kits for onsite use. Furthermore, some omics techniques have the potential to simultaneously detect multiple enteric viruses that cause human disease. Other emerging technologies discussed include microfluidic, aptamer and biosensor-based detection methods developed to detect norovirus with high sensitivity from a simple matrix. Many of these approaches have the potential to be developed as user-friendly onsite detection kits with minimal costs. However, more collaborative efforts on research and development will be required to commercialize such products. Once developed, these emerging technologies could provide a way forward that minimizes public health risks associated with shellfish consumption.

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