On this page you will find the latest reports for each resistance gene or bacterial species recently reported on by the ESR surveillance team. If you wish to read older or archived reports, they can be found in the Archive.
You can also see additional AMR-based data at a glance in the Notifiable disease dashboard and annual reports.
The Antibiotic Reference Laboratory at ESR is responsible for the national surveillance of antimicrobial resistance among human pathogens. Data from various surveillance systems and sources is used to compile national antimicrobial resistance data:
- The antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial isolates referred to ESR for further investigation, such as epidemiological typing, is monitored. This surveillance includes Salmonella, Shigella, and invasive isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis.
- Rare and emerging resistant bacteria are monitored by requesting hospital and community laboratories to refer all such isolates to ESR. Currently this surveillance includes bacteria, especially Enterobacterales, with acquired carbapenemases and vancomycin-resistant enterococci. The full list can be found on our public health page.
- Periodic point-prevalence surveys of antimicrobial susceptibility among a specific organism using a purpose-collected sample of isolates from throughout the country are conducted.
- Antimicrobial susceptibility data generated from routine diagnostic susceptibility testing in hospital and community laboratories is collected and analysed, and data can be found here.
Data from this surveillance is routinely published on this webpage.
Acquired carbapenemase-producing organisms
Hospital and community laboratories are requested to refer all isolates of possible carbapenemase-producing organisms to ESR for confirmation and further characterisation. This includes all carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales (CPE), carbapenemase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa and carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter.
CPE surveillance reports are available below. The first report covers the 6-year period 2009 (when the first CPE was identified in New Zealand) to 2014. Annual CPE surveillance reports are available for 2015 to 2021.
Until the annual surveillance report for the year is available, a cumulative line listing of carbapenemase-producing organisms confirmed during the year, updated at the end of each month, is available as an Excel file below.
Reports from 2016-2014 available in the Archive.
Antibiotic consumption report (2014)
One of the key factors responsible for the emergence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is the use and overuse of antibiotics. This report was the first comprehensive summary of antibiotic consumption in New Zealand, presenting key trends from 2006 – 2014. The report provides baseline information on antibiotic consumption usage according to age, sex, ethnicity and geography (District Health Board). It serves as an ongoing platform on which to gauge the effects of potential future community-based antimicrobial stewardship efforts.
ESBLs in Enterobacteriacae
Until 2005 hospital and community laboratories were requested to refer all isolations of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriacae to ESR for confirmation and further characterisation. Annual summaries of confirmed isolates are available.
Between 2006 and 2014, national surveillance of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae was based on annual surveys. After 2014, less frequent surveys were performed. Survey reports are available.
Reports from 2013-2002 available in the Archive
General antimicrobial susceptibility data
The last five years of data is available here. For older data please visit the Archive.
Antimicrobial susceptibility data generated from routine diagnostic susceptibility testing in hospital and community microbiology laboratories is collected and analysed annually. Data for a range of organisms and antibiotics is collected. The organisms currently include Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii complex, Enterobacter from bacteraemia, Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium from bacteraemia, Escherichia coli from bacteraemia and urinary sources, Klebsiella from bacteraemia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa from bacteraemia, and Staphylococcus aureus from bacteraemia and skin and soft tissue infection.
Until 2015 inclusive, susceptibility data was also collected for Campylobacter species, Citrobacter freundii, coagulase-negative staphylococci from blood, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Morganella morganii, Proteus mirabilis, Serratia species, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes.
Until 2012 inclusive, susceptibility data was also collected for Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Since 2013, gonococcal susceptibility data has been collected as part of the laboratory-based surveillance of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and the results are included in the annual STI surveillance reports.
Please note that the data for the years prior to 2016 is presented as rates of resistance whereas data for the years 2016 onwards is presented as rates of susceptibility.
Haemophilus influenzae from invasive disease
Laboratories throughout New Zealand are requested to refer all invasive isolates of H. influenzae to ESR as part of the laboratory-based surveillance of H. influenzae invasive disease. Until 2015, the antimicrobial susceptibility of these isolates was routinely tested and reported every year at ESR. Between 2015 and 2019, the susceptibility of the invasive H. influenzae isolates referred to ESR is only being tested and reported every second year. From 2020 the antimicrobial susceptibility of H. influenzae isolates are not routinely tested or reported on.
Reports from 2012-2002 available in the Archive.
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) national surveillance is based on regular surveys. For these surveys, hospital and community laboratories are requested to refer to ESR all MRSA isolated during a specified period, usually one month. These surveys provide a useful and representative 'snapshot' of the overall epidemiology of MRSA in New Zealand. The surveys were conducted annually between 2000 and 2015, with less frequent surveys thereafter.
Reports from 2011-2002 available in the Archive.
Neisseria meningiditis from invasive disease
Laboratories throughout New Zealand are requested to refer all invasive isolates of N. meningitidis to ESR as part of the laboratory-based surveillance of meningococcal disease. The antimicrobial susceptibility of these isolates is routinely tested at ESR.
Annual reports on antimicrobial susceptibility among N. meningitidis from invasive disease are available.
Older reports from 2017-2002 are available in the Archive
A national survey of antimicrobial resistance among N. gonorrhoeae was undertaken in 2014-2015 and 2018-2019. Reports on these surveys are available below. Quarterly reports (now discontinued) from 2005-2008 are available in the archive.
National gonococcal susceptibility data is also available on an annual basis up until 2013 in the General antimicrobial susceptibility reports.
From 2013 gonococcal susceptibility data was collected as part of ESR’s laboratory-based surveillance of STIs and reports are available at on the Archives
Human and non-human salmonella isolates are located in the other laboratory-based surveillance page.
Hospital and community laboratories are requested to refer all Salmonella isolated from human salmonellosis cases to ESR as part of the laboratory-based surveillance of this disease. Salmonella from other sources, including food, animal and environmental sources, are also referred to ESR for epidemiological typing. All typhoidal and recognised multidrug-resistant Salmonella are tested every year. Every third year the antimicrobial susceptibility of a representative sample of non-typhoidal isolates is tested.
Reports from 2012-2003 available in the Archive.
Shigella isolates data is found on the other laboratory-based surveillance page.
Hospital and community laboratories are requested to refer all Shigella isolated from shigellosis cases to ESR as part of the laboratory-based surveillance of this disease. Commencing in 2016, the antimicrobial susceptibility of these Shigella isolates will be surveyed at 3-yearly intervals. A report on the first of these 3-yearly surveys is available below and includes the antimicrobial susceptibility of Shigella isolates referred to ESR over two years, 2015 and 2016, due to the relatively small number of cases of shigellosis that occur in one year. The second report summarises the antimicrobial susceptibility of Shigella isolates referred to ESR during 2019 only.
For data on antimicrobial susceptibility among S. aureus see the section General antimicrobial susceptibility data.
In addition, data are available from national point-prevalence surveys conducted in 2014, and 1999 can be found in the Archive.
Vancomycin resistant enterococci
Hospital and community laboratories are requested to refer all VRE isolations to ESR for confirmation and further characterisation.
Annual summaries of confirmed isolates are available for 2016 to 2021.
Until the annual surveillance report for the year is available, information on the vancomycin-resistant enterococci received during the year will be updated at the end of each month.
Reports from 2015-2002 available in the Archive.